Updated: Mar 11
Welcome to the next stage of human development – Adulthood. This is a journey that spans from Young Adulthood to Older Adulthood, during which people take on adult responsibilities in work and social relationships. It’s important to note that adulthood isn’t a single phase of life. Rather, it’s period of continuous developmental changes throughout the lifespan. The challenges of adult love, work and play change considerably as people move through different stages of life.
Physical development is a continuous process of change that begins from birth and extends into early adulthood. As people grow older, they experience a gradual decline in physical speed and endurance, vision, and hearing. The decline in cognitive abilities is also a natural part of aging. Fluid intelligence, the ability to solve logical problems quickly, reaches its peak in the early 20s and declines thereafter, while crystallized intelligence, which refers to knowledge and skills, improves until the late 30s and then declines slowly afterward.
Emotional and social development also undergoes changes during adulthood. The major dimensions of adult personality remain stable over time, but predictable changes occur during the adult part of the lifespan. Adults become less anxious and emotional, less socially outgoing, and less creative as they grow older, but they become more dependable, agreeable, and accepting of life’s hardships. Moreover, some gender differences in personality become muted over time, as women become more assertive, confident, and independent, and men become more aware of their aesthetic needs and their need for affection.
The challenges of adult love, work and play change considerably during adulthood. The demands of maintaining a marriage are different for newlyweds, parents of infants, parents of teenagers, or a couple in their 70s. Similarly, the demands of work and play change with age. Although physical and cognitive abilities may decline with age, adults continue to develop wisdom that allows them to solve problems of life in ways that are judged to be “wise”. This is dependent on the level of healthy exercise and activity that the individual maintains during adulthood. So, while adulthood may bring its own set of challenges, it is also a time of growth, self-discovery, and maturation.
Cultural and societal factors play a significant role in shaping adult development. In many cultures, social roles and expectations are defined based on gender, age, and other cultural and societal factors. These expectations can influence adult development by shaping how individuals view themselves, their relationships, and their role in society. For example, in some cultures, women are expected to prioritize their families over their careers, which can impact their choices and opportunities for personal and professional growth. Additionally, societal and cultural norms can impact the timing and nature of major life transitions such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement, which can impact the trajectory of adult development.
Furthermore, cultural and societal factors can impact the way individuals view and approach aging. In some cultures, aging is viewed as a natural and respected part of life, while in others, it is seen as a decline in usefulness and productivity. These cultural beliefs can influence how individuals view their own aging process and their attitudes toward older adults in general. Additionally, cultural attitudes toward health and wellness can impact physical and cognitive aging processes. For example, cultures that prioritize healthy eating and exercise may experience slower declines in physical abilities and cognitive functioning in older age. Overall, cultural and societal factors are critical considerations when examining adult development, as they shape the experiences and opportunities available to individuals as they navigate the challenges and transitions of adult life.
The stages of adult life are marked by challenges and transitions that help individuals develop their personalities, relationships, and contributions to society. According to Erikson, early adulthood, which spans from 17 to 45 years, is a time when individuals face the challenge of intimacy versus isolation. Successful entry into committed, loving relationships replaces the bonds with parents and leads to full emotional development. However, failure to do so results in isolation and stunted emotional growth. Early adulthood consists of three stages: entry to early adulthood, which lasts until approximately age 28, the age 30 transition, and the culmination of early adulthood, which extends roughly from the early 30s to about age 40. This period is characterized by vigorous health, sexuality, and potential occupational advancement, but it is also a time of significant decisions concerning family and occupation.
Middle adulthood, spanning from 40 to 60 years, is a time of taking stock of oneself and one’s contributions to society. This is a marked shift from the focus on becoming in one’s 20s and 30s to thinking about who one is during middle age. While some people experience a positive appraisal of themselves during the transition to midlife, others experience disappointment due to missed opportunities or unfulfilled dreams. As a result, many people either redefine their goals to fit their more modest accomplishments or change direction during the transition to middle adulthood. Erikson refers to middle adulthood as the stage of generativity versus stagnation, where individuals find meaning in their generative activities, such as work, family life, community activities, and religion. Those who successfully navigate middle adulthood develop a devotion to endeavors that live beyond their own life spans, such as building a family business, guiding one’s children or grandchildren, or mentoring younger coworkers.
Levinson describes four brief stages of middle adulthood, beginning with the midlife transition that reaches a peak in the early 40s. This transition is a period of anguish and turmoil for some individuals, but for others, it is quite easy. The majority of a sample of 40 men studied by Levinson experienced a midlife crisis. Levinson's four stages are the early adult transition (ages 17-22), the entering the adult world stage (ages 22-28), the age 30 transition (ages 28-33), and the settling down stage (ages 33-40). During the settling down the stage, individuals work hard toward their goals, but also make time for other interests, such as planting trees in the yard or joining the PTA Executive Board.
Ultimately, both early and middle adulthood are demanding periods that require individuals to make crucial decisions concerning family, occupation, and personal growth. These decisions must be made before one has the maturity and life experience to make them comfortable. However, these stages are also times of potential growth, where individuals can develop close relationships, find meaning in generative activities, and build a sense of identity, self-direction, and competence. By navigating the challenges and transitions of adult life, individuals can develop into fully-formed, contributing members of society.
Late adulthood: The stage of integrity versus despair marks the final chapter of Erikson's psychosocial development theory. This stage starts from the late 60s and beyond, with individuals reflecting on their lives and assessing whether they have achieved a meaningful existence or not. For some, life is a collection of unmet goals and unanswered riddles, leading them to withdraw from social interaction and despair. However, most older adults find meaning and continue to lead satisfying and happy lives. Recent studies show that older is the happiest age group, which reflects that real living continues until death.
The life expectancy of the population has increased significantly in the 20th century. People born in 1900 had a life expectancy of fewer than 50 years, but those born in 1955 could expect to live to 70. Children born in 1999 could expect to live to almost 80. This change has resulted in a shift in our conceptions of old age. Many individuals can expect to have many healthy years after the traditional retirement age of 65, leading them to plan second careers, and engage in active political involvement, writing, or other fulfilling activities in their 60s, 70s, and 80s. However, older people often feel that time is running out in their lives, leading to a positive focus on the meaningful emotional priorities of life.
Stage theories of adult development can be criticized for several reasons. Firstly, early theories of adult development had men more in mind than women. However, studies have suggested that the patterns of adult development in women and men are broadly similar. Secondly, early theories implied that they applied universally to all people born at all times, but studies have been limited to white, college-educated, English-speaking adults. Within a given culture, historical change alters the course of adult development. Thirdly, research has not always supported the specific predictions of the stage theories of adult development, raising questions about the idea of stage theories. Not all developmental psychologists believe that adulthood can be thought of as a series of crises or stages. Some have argued that the inevitability and negative impact of the midlife transition have been dangerously exaggerated.
The stage of integrity versus despair marks the final stage of Erikson's psychosocial development theory. While some individuals may despair, most find meaning and continue to lead satisfying and happy lives until death. Changes in life expectancy have shifted our conceptions of old age, with individuals planning fulfilling activities even in their 80s. Criticism of stage theories of adult development suggests that they may not apply universally, and not all developmental psychologists believe that adulthood can be thought of as a series of crises or stages. Despite this, stage theories remain thought-provoking and appealing. Death and Dying: The Final “Stage”: The journey of life begins with a single cell and ends with death, a topic that has recently received overdue scientific attention, particularly among the elderly. Research on death and dying has produced some interesting findings that shed light on the final stage of life. For many individuals, thoughts of death are an important part of the last stages of life, especially among older adults who tend to spend more time contemplating and planning for their death.
Contrary to popular belief, older adults tend to be less frightened by death than younger adults. They often accept its inevitability with little anguish, which allows them to make the most out of their remaining time. However, fear of death is related to other variables besides age, such as religious belief. Highly religious individuals experience the least fear of death, while nonreligious individuals experience moderate levels of anxiety. Religious people who do not consistently practice their faith experience the greatest fear of dying.
Psychiatrist Elisabeth Kübler-Ross provided new and important insights into the process of dying through her interviews with hundreds of terminally ill patients. Her theory suggests that people who learn of their impending death tend to pass through five distinct stages: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. While not every terminally ill person goes through all these stages, reactions to impending death are highly individual.
The first stage, denial, involves a strong resistance to the idea of death by denying the validity of the information about the terminal illness. The second stage, anger, is characterized by hostility, the envy of others, and resentment. The third stage, bargaining, involves attempts to strike bargains to prolong life. The fourth stage, depression, is marked by guilt, feelings of incapability, and sadness. Finally, in the fifth stage, acceptance, the individual achieves a state of emotional exhaustion that leaves them peacefully free of negative emotions.
It is important to note that imposing our views of how the process of accepting death should proceed on a loved one is not helpful. Reactions to impending death are highly individual, and each person's journey should be respected.
In conclusion, death is an inevitable part of life, and research on death and dying has provided important insights into the final stage of life. Thoughts of death are a natural part of the last stages of life, and older adults tend to be less frightened by death than younger adults. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross's theory on the five stages of dying provides a framework for understanding the emotional journey that terminally ill individuals may go through. However, it is important to remember that each person's journey is unique, and it is important to respect their individual reactions and process of acceptance. Moving forward, in the next articles, we will discuss motivation and its various forms. Motivation is a crucial aspect of human behavior and can drive individuals to achieve their goals, pursue their passions, and lead fulfilling lives. We will explore the different types of motivation, such as intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and the factors that influence motivation, such as culture, social norms, and individual differences. By understanding motivation, individuals can gain insights into their own behaviors and improve their lives. Stay tuned for more in Understanding the Driving Forces behind Human Behavior