Updated: Mar 9
Let me take you on a journey through the wonders of our minds and explore the different states of consciousness that exist. Close your eyes and imagine a peaceful beach scene. Feel the warmth of the sun on your skin and the soft sand between your toes. Hear the gentle sound of waves crashing against the shore. Now, did you create this scene in your mind? This simple exercise demonstrates how our consciousness can create vivid experiences that may not correspond with reality.
Now, let's take a closer look at the incredible study conducted by Nancy Kerr at the Georgia Mental Health Institute. Kerr studied the dreams of individuals who lost their sight as children and found something remarkable. These individuals could create visual images of their friends in their dreams, even if they had never seen them with their eyes before. That's right - they could "see" what their friends looked like in their minds. This is just one example of the many different states of consciousness that exist.
In this article, we define consciousness as a state of awareness that includes not just our awareness of the external world, but also our own thoughts and emotions, and sometimes even our own consciousness. There are many different states of consciousness to explore, from dream states to altered states achieved through meditation, hypnosis, or drug use. As you journey through this exploration, consider how much of your awareness comes from your sense organs versus your own mind. If you've ever been curious about what goes on in your mind during different states of consciousness, then you're in the right place. So, let's dive in and uncover the fascinating world of our own minds together.
Normal Awake Consciousness and the Unconscious Mind Wide Awake, also known as Normal Waking Consciousness, is a state of consciousness that most of us experience for the majority of our waking hours. During this state, we are alert and attentive to the external world and our own internal experiences. We are able to use our five senses to perceive our surroundings and make judgments about the world around us. Our thoughts and emotions are also active, and we are able to focus our attention on various tasks or ideas. While it may seem like a mundane state of consciousness, Wide Awake is essential for daily functioning and is the foundation for many other states of consciousness. Understanding the nuances of this state of consciousness can help us appreciate the richness of our everyday experiences and may even lead to insights about ourselves and the world around us. Have you ever found yourself mentally in two places at the same time? we all at least once experienced this phenomenon during a drive home from work for example. Your mind was consumed by thoughts, and before you knew it, You arrive home without any recollection of the drive. According to Stanford University psychologist Ernest Hilgard, this is an example of divided consciousness. Our conscious awareness becomes "split," and we attempt to perform two activities requiring our attention simultaneously. While multitasking can be easy for activities that are automatic, like walking and chewing gum, it becomes more challenging when we try to divide our attention between two activities that require conscious awareness, like driving and talking on a cell phone. Research shows that even with a hands-free headset, cell phone conversations distract drivers and lead to errors and accidents. And while you might think it's easy to walk and talk on a cell phone, studies show that people who do so can fail to notice a clown on a unicycle! Dividing our consciousness comes at a cost, and we may find ourselves mindlessly reading or driving on "autopilot" without fully registering our surroundings. The topic of the unconscious mind is important in the study of psychology and has gained more attention in recent years. While traditionally the term "unconscious" was used more by philosophers than psychologists, scientific research has shown that many cognitive processes occur unconsciously without our awareness. One of the most famous experiments in this area was conducted by Andrew Mathews and Colin MacLeod in 1986, in which they studied a phenomenon known as the "cocktail party effect."
The cocktail party effect refers to the ability of our brains to selectively attend to one particular voice in a crowded room while filtering out all the others. For example, when you're at a party, you can focus on a conversation with one person, while simultaneously tuning out all the other conversations happening around you.
To study this phenomenon, Mathews and MacLeod designed an experiment in which participants were asked to listen to two different messages presented to them simultaneously over different earphones. They were instructed to ignore one of the messages and to repeat the other one aloud.
The messages were carefully selected to be either non-threatening words, such as "friend" and "concert," or threatening words, such as "assault" and "emergency." To ensure that the threatening words would have a greater emotional impact on the participants, the researchers selected only highly anxious individuals who were receiving treatment for their problems.
During the experiment, participants were asked to keep their eyes on a computer screen and press a key as quickly as they could after the word "press" appeared on the screen. The researchers wanted to measure the participant's reaction time to the word "press" while they were listening to the two messages.
The participants reported that they were not consciously aware of any of the ignored words because they were so focused on the message they had to repeat it. However, when the threatening words were presented, the anxious individuals pressed the key significantly less quickly than when non-threatening words were presented. This indicated that the ignored words were being processed by the brain without conscious awareness, and the emotional impact of the threatening words disrupted performance on the reaction-time task.
The Mathews and MacLeod experiment showed that many of our cognitive operations and mental processes occur unconsciously, without our awareness. By carefully designing experiments like this, psychologists can gain a better understanding of the mental processes that affect us without our conscious awareness.
Sleep and Dreams Our Brain's Adventure: Have you ever wondered why we need to sleep? Is it just a blank period in our day where we're unaware of our surroundings? Not quite. Sleep is actually a complex process consisting of several stages, some of which involve consciousness. These stages are different from being wide awake, and they create a unique reality that our brains experience. Stages of Sleep When we fall asleep, we don't just immediately enter a deep slumber. Instead, we move through different stages of sleep.
First, we enter a semi-awake state called the hypnagogic state, where we start to lose control of our body movements and our thoughts become less tied to reality. This state is highly relaxed and enjoyable for most people. However, occasionally, we might experience a sudden jerk called myoclonia, which is a normal brain reaction as we drift off to sleep. After the hypnagogic state, we enter four stages of progressively deeper sleep. These stages are determined by electrical brain activity measurements, and the depth of sleep fluctuates many times throughout the night. Our brain waves slow down during the later stages of sleep, and we alternate between different levels of sleep In 1952, Eugene Aserinsky, a graduate student at the University of Chicago, observed a child sleeping in a laboratory and discovered that rapid eye movements (REM) during sleep correlated with brain activity similar to being awake. Aserinsky and his professor, Nathaniel Kleitman, awakened many sleeping participants during REM sleep and found that over 80% reported having dreams. This led to the beginning of the scientific study of dreams. During REM sleep, the autonomic nervous system and other parts of the peripheral nervous system become active, causing changes in various parts of the body. Voluntary control of large body muscles is lost during REM sleep, likely to prevent acting out dreams. Dreams occur during at least 80% of REM sleep episodes, which last about two hours a night and are divided into four to six separate episodes. On average, young adults have 30 to 40 REM dreams per week. However, people often forget their dreams quickly unless they awaken during or soon after the dream. REM sleep is not the only part of the sleep cycle that contains dreams. REM dreams may trigger an "autonomic storm" where the autonomic and peripheral nervous systems become highly active, causing various changes in the body such as irregular heartbeat, twitching muscles, and irregular breathing. During REM sleep, voluntary control of large body muscles is lost to prevent acting out dreams. Both humans and animals experience autonomic storms during REM sleep. Males experience erections, and females experience vaginal lubrication and clitoral erection during REM sleep. Clinicians can diagnose erectile dysfunction by monitoring erections during REM sleep in a sleep laboratory. Sleep researchers originally believed that dreams were rare during non-REM sleep. However, subsequent studies have shown that people report dreaming about half of the time during non-REM sleep. Non-REM dreams are less strange and negative than REM dreams but are generally similar. In total, we spend a lot of time in a dream state during sleep, with two hours of REM dreaming and two to three hours of non-REM dreaming per night, on average.
Dreams are a fascinating aspect of human consciousness. Daydreams are a common conscious state where we think and feel, not limited by logic or reality. When we sleep, we experience dreams that have been studied by psychologists for over 100 years. Dreams are mostly visual, with few auditory or body sensations. The visual images in dreams are usually as clear as waking images but are dull in color. We are the author of our dreams, and we have an active role in nearly three-fourths of them. The emotional content of dreams can be positive or negative, but usually, we are happy in our dreams. Men are more likely to recall positive dreams than women, and women are more likely to dream of being victims of aggression. Dreams can be creative and bizarre, with 75% of dreams containing at least one unrealistic element mixed into an otherwise realistic dream. Alerted Consciousness Have you ever experienced a moment where your perception of time and space seemed distorted, and your body felt like it wasn't your own? Or have you felt an intense sense of joy or tranquility, feeling unified with nature or a spiritual force? These are just a few characteristics of altered states of consciousness, which can be experienced through meditation, drug use, sexual orgasm, or religious conversion. These states of consciousness can lead to new revelations and insights that feel self-evident and real, but they don't always make sense by everyday logic. They are transcendent, going beyond our ordinary perceptions, and can be difficult to describe with words. Ultimately, how we evaluate these insights depends on our perspective. Science can only say that altered states of consciousness are different from our everyday waking consciousness Sexual orgasm and religious conversion are both examples of altered states of consciousness. During a particularly intense sexual experience or moment of religious conversion, a person's perception, mood, and behavior may be altered. They may experience a sense of unity with something greater than themselves or feel a transcendental connection to the world around them. These experiences can produce intense positive emotions and a sense of deep spiritual insight.
However, it's worth noting that altered states of consciousness experienced during sexual orgasm and religious conversion are different from those induced by psychotropic drugs or other practices like meditation or hypnosis. The specific characteristics of each altered state of consciousness can vary depending on the individual and the circumstances of the experience.
Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) refer to the changes in the quality and content of conscious experience that deviate from ordinary waking consciousness. These states may be induced by various methods such as meditation, mindfulness, hypnosis, and depersonalization. ASC can alter an individual's perception, cognition, and self-awareness, and often lead to unique experiences and insights.
Meditation is a practice that has been used for thousands of years to induce altered states of consciousness. It involves focused attention on a particular object or activity, such as breathing or a mantra. Meditation has been shown to reduce stress, anxiety, and depression, and improve emotional regulation and attention. It is also associated with changes in brain activity patterns, including increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in attention and self-regulation.
Mindfulness is a type of meditation that involves non-judgmental awareness of the present moment, including one's thoughts, emotions, and bodily sensations. It has become increasingly popular in recent years and has been shown to have many benefits, including improved emotional regulation, reduced stress, and improved well-being. Mindfulness meditation may also lead to changes in brain structure and function, including increased gray matter density in areas related to attention and emotional regulation.
Hypnosis is a state of consciousness that involves heightened suggestibility and altered perceptions. It is often induced by a hypnotist who provides suggestions for relaxation and focus and can be used to treat various conditions such as chronic pain, anxiety, and phobias. During hypnosis, individuals may experience a sense of dissociation from their surroundings and a heightened focus on the hypnotist's suggestions.
Depersonalization is an altered state of consciousness that involves a feeling of detachment from one's body, thoughts, and emotions. It can occur in response to trauma, anxiety, or substance use and is often described as feeling like an observer of one's own experiences. Depersonalization can be distressing and disruptive to daily life, but can also lead to insights and a deeper understanding of one's self. Therapy and mindfulness practices may be used to treat depersonalization. Drugs and Altered Consciousness
The use of drugs can significantly impact a person's state of consciousness. Different types of psychotropic drugs can cause various changes in perception, mood, and behavior. For instance, depressants such as alcohol, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates can slow down the central nervous system, leading to relaxation and sedation. One of the most famous depressants is alcohol, which can cause impaired judgment, slurred speech, and even alcohol poisoning in severe cases.
Stimulants such as amphetamines, cocaine, and methamphetamine can increase alertness, energy levels, and euphoria. Cocaine is one of the most popular and well-known stimulants, which can cause a sense of confidence and increased heart rate, leading to potential heart damage and overdose.
Hallucinogens such as LSD, psilocybin, and DMT can produce vivid sensory experiences, including visual, auditory, and tactile hallucinations that distort the perception of time and space. LSD is perhaps the most famous hallucinogen, which can cause intense, often overwhelming hallucinations and altered states of consciousness.
Inhalants such as aerosols, solvents, and gases can produce mind-altering effects when inhaled. These substances can cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and even hallucinations. One of the most well-known inhalants is glue, which can lead to brain damage, seizures, and even sudden death.
Lastly, the marijuana family, including marijuana and hashish, can produce euphoria, altered perception, and relaxation. These substances are known for their psychoactive effects and are often used recreationally. However, marijuana use can lead to dependence, impaired memory and concentration, and lung damage from the smoking.
It is crucial to understand that drug abuse and dependence can lead to severe negative consequences for physical and mental health. Long-term drug use can result in addiction, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms. Seeking professional help is essential if you or a loved one is struggling with drug addiction. With proper support, it is possible to overcome drug dependence and lead a healthy and fulfilling life.
In the next article, we will move to the Principles of Learning: we will explore these principles and provide examples to help you understand how they work. From Salivating Dogs to Assertive Neighbors: A Guide to the Principles of Learning Sources:
Lahey, B. B. (2018). Psychology: An Introduction (Seventh Edition). McGraw-Hill Education.
Wood, S. E. (2016). Mastering the World of Psychology (Fifth Edition). Pearson.